The mechanisms for a potential cardiovascular benefit of drinking are not fully elucidated, but changes in lipoproteins, lipoprotein subclasses, and apolipoprotein (apos) have been shown.
This project involves a systematic literature review concerning the effect of moderate alcohol intake on apos. We have previously conducted a large systematic review on alcohol and lipoprotein subfractions (see abstract below). Apos were included in the systematic search, but due to the number of articles, it was decided to exclude studies that only looked at apos and include them in a separate review. We have all the articles available in Covidence but need an updated search covering the last two years. A meta-analysis could potentially be included if desired. The project should be part of a Bachelor's or Master's thesis or similar. Please contact PhD student, Trine Wilkens for further questions.
ABSTRACT (alcohol and lipoprotein subfractions)
Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and improvement in cardiovascular biomarkers. Therefore, this study aimed to review the relationship between moderate alcohol intake, lipoprotein subclasses and related mechanisms systematically. The secondary aim was to investigate whether results differ by study design and disease status. By use of nine scientific databases, studies published in English were included if the relationship between moderate alcohol intake in doses up to 60 g/d, lipoprotein subclasses and related mechanisms were examined. Human and ex vivo studies in all types of study designs and populations were eligible, independent of publication year. Data was extracted in duplicate by two independent reviewers. A total of 37 intervention studies and 75 observational studies were eligible, totaling 20,510 and 98,375 participants from intervention and observational studies, respectively. Overall, moderate alcohol intake was positively related to all HDL subclasses measured, independent of study design. The evidence from intervention studies was low for LDL subfractions, but some observational studies found lower levels of smaller LDL particles and increased LDL particle size, in addition to more complex, non-linear and U-shaped relationships to apoB containing particles. Cholesterol efflux capacity and paraoxonase activity were clearly increased in all types of studies. Few studies investigated high or at risk individuals, and a substantial number of studies were graded with unclear or high risk of bias. Further, comparability between studies was restricted by use of heterogeneous laboratory methods. Thus, moderate alcohol intake may be associated with favorable changes in lipoprotein subfractions. These changes were in agreement with related biological mechanisms. This review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, registration number: 98955